India’s Education System: The Cycle of Inequality and Discrimination

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India’s Education System: The Cycle of Inequality and Discrimination. Before starting to examine strategies for improving enrolment in essential education and literacy rates, it is imperative to know why Sikhsha is such a significant theme for  developed nation. Since from the past century it has been described by a worldwide importance and expansion of education. Along with this development in education has additionally been an expansion in the hole between various social layers. The true essence of human life is achieved by the education only

Education Helps in Creation of a superior society

An individual is bound to grow better good and moral qualities. Absence of education makes issues like poor health, aggressive behaviour at home, chronic weakness, and helpless. Education brings equivalent open door for the people and taught individuals that they have the option to make a superior society. Without it a superior society can’t be shaped.

Education is the Backbone of a Society

Education is a basic piece of human culture. Its significance in life can’t be disregarded as absence of education brings forth various social issues like chronic frailty, inner clash. It encourages individuals to locate a superior answer for their issues. Education lets individuals understand the genuine estimation of contribution and help become the foundation of the public.

How education is important for children?

The Children are the future of tomorrow. The nation wealth is dependent upon the children and youth generation. The powerhouse of the nation so, it become necessary for nation to raise the kind and quality of the children. They called as a gift of god.  it the duty of the parents, guardians, teachers, mentors to teach the children good habits, good lesson moulded to be in appropriate direction. They all are the future of the country. But what if children do a crime like murder, rape, or another heinous crime. Are they punish or not, if yes what kind of punishment they get? The rule of law which means all are equal before the Law whether it poor, rich, low high all are same. The rule of law doesn’t   discriminate   between adults and child which means if the child does a crime they also get punishment but is all same treated like adults. 

Constitution of India Legislated Education Rights

  • Education for Women and Children Article 15(3)
  • Education for the Backward Classes Article 15(4)
  • Right to Education Article 21 A
  • Free and Compulsory Education

The Constitution makes the following provisions under Article [1]45 of the Directive Principles of State Policy that, “The state shall endeavor to provide within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory Education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.”

Discrimination on the Basis of Caste

As per the All India Survey on Higher Education 2018-19 portion of enlisted minorities actually keep on being under-represented out of total population.

Profoundly in Indian culture have the complex social definition of people known as the caste system. It is a division of society customarily dependent on occupation and family. In India, the caste system is partitioned into five separate classes. The most noteworthy class in Indian culture is that of the priest, or Brahmins, then warrior class, the Kshatriyas. Third positioned are the individuals who fall in the farmer and merchant class, the Vaishyas, the last fourth positioned are worker class, the Shudras. The fifth one, which was viewed as being so low as to not put in any rank, were the Dalits. They called as per Indian culture as the untouchables, these were the individuals who have the harshest and generally unfair. In rural areas, Dalits were avoided from temples, town wells. In certain territories of the nation, the Dalits were not allowed to walk in sunlight for their shadows were viewed as contamination for the upper people. The situation is worst in ancient time but after the making of welfare state all citizens of states are equal. For treated them equally, the laws are made for their upliftment in the society. Indian Constitution Article 17 abolished untouchability. Article 16 provides equal opportunity for all.

Recently, the Horrific case of Hathras Rape is also based on the caste feud. The victim is belonging to lower caste and their father also said that how the lower caste people are discriminated. Their children are not go school, their daughters have to stay home just because of the fear and discrimination they all faced.  This is not only about Hathras and more place in India faced this kind of discrimination still. 

 The upper caste people of India think they are untouchable and they practices since from ancient times in India. They treated “lower” castes as too “polluted” to be allowed even into one’s house. Much of India’s poverty is concentrated among social groups which are excluded from the mainstream through systematic discrimination.

India Human Development Survey (IHDS) of 2011-12 covering  42,152 households across the country had shown that 27% of the Indian population claims openly to practice untouchability (30% of rural and 20% of urban households).The spread is across the whole social spectrum, the “higher” castes comprise the majority of households who practice it.

India Exclusion Report (2014) by Centre for Equity Studies observes how exclusionary and discriminatory practices prevail in Indian schools. Poorer children are shown to have lower educational participation indicators, and it follows that a higher proportion is out of school. Marginalized households including Dalit, Adivasi, Muslim and female-headed households, and households with persons with disabilities are vulnerable to educational exclusion due to impacts of poverty. As a result of many of these factors, 75% of the more than six million children currently out of school in India are either Dalits (32.4%), Muslims (25.7%) or Adivasis (16.6%).

Steps for prevent discrimination among children and education

  1. Affirmative action and programmes are needed to increase enrolment of students who may have faced race, caste, gender, or geographical discrimination.
  2. Policies and schemes such as scholarships, conditional cash prizes etc. can significantly increase participation of minorities in the higher education.
  3. Reservations in higher education to minorities should be accompanied by structural changes like land reforms and an inclusive educational support system.
  4. Reservation for them for their upliftment and the authority must check they the rights enjoyed by them have progressive reports and not violate by the others.
  5. The proper administrative system is there to examine that there is no discrimination occur in the society.

Girls Education

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao campaign for the girl to promote girl education and protection. If we look the History, the importance of girl education is not mandatory. We all assumed that girl for kitchen boys for education, that’s, why to educate girls is not necessary just because they all are for made for home and kitchens.

Poverty and child labour: the most important factor is poverty, due to this education to girls are eliminated. Many girls begin working as early as five years old – mainly in agriculture or in homes as domestic servants.

Reason why the girl is not able to get the Education

  • Caring for relatives, families
  • Water and Sanitation: There are not proper sanitation and hygienic school to spend girl child 6 hrs.
  • Child Marriage: Every year 15 million girls under the age of 18 become wives – an average of 40,000 every day. Marriage interrupts and ends girls’ education so they don’t gain the skills that could lift them out of poverty – over 60% of child brides in developing countries have no formal education.
  • The rural areas the number of school are very low and they situated very far away from the rural areas, by this the family stop the girl child to send the girl to far away for study.

How To Escape Out of this

  • Awareness and promote the importance of girl education especially in rural areas
  • Establishment of school or colleges, mainly at the district level.
  • If the co- education in not acceptable then there is shift system, that is separate shift for girls and boys in the same buildings.
  • There is a female Officer to inspection and administration
  • Promote girl in honor academic success and extracurricular achievements
  • Encourage, supports, help the girl child in their study or dreams.
  • Government make policy for the education of girl child like reservation in school and college, provide scholarship, financial support.
  • These days, crimes on the girl are increase like rape, sexual assaults, so, their school and college have provided class like karate class, teach them how to fought from these,
  • Make them strong physically, emotionally, mentally.
  • When you educate one person you can change a life, when you educate many you can change the world- Shai Reshef

The education is weapon of all problems, it gives a way from darkness to light. The right to education if for everyone Irrespective of race, creed, and gender, education makes it possible for people to stand out as equal with all the other persons from different walks of life. But nowadays, education is the best-known profit- and money-making business. Let’s, start with school, the fees especially private school fees are so high that a half salary of the father is spent on the school fees only. The more reputed private school have more fees.  Mostly parent want their child to study in good school but due to fees they did not able to get the admission on these school.

During pandemic condition, the online mode of education is start, but are they really meet to all. The online education need laptops and phone to all children but many parent are not able to buy it, so how they can study during this period. In the recent news said that many children are away from 7 months to study just because they don’t have the laptops and phones.  Education for nowadays is for who have privileged to it otherwise not.


There is need to relook and focused   what the problems faced by the children. Just take best example Bihar education system, few year back the topper of the Bihar board have interview and they did not known anything. The exams are full based cheating and the student said the school teacher are not came to teach then how we can pass the exam. There is should be a limit to pay fees in the private schools and colleges. It is necessary to maintain, refurbished providing well, good facilities in Sarkari School. The facilities in Sarkari School still lacks, which promote inequality in education like one side so much facilities other side not.

Written By

Priya Sharma

University of Petroleum and Energy Studies

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